2.K Recount historic and contemporary research strategies and technologies that support research.
2.L Identify the contributions of key researchers to the development of tools for examining the brain.
A gripping tale of medical intervention gone awry, and one of the most barbaric mistakes of modern medicine.
NR · 2008 · 1hr
A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. Much of Sigmund Freud's work and theories were developed through the use of individual case studies.
In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior.
An ablation experiment (or lesioning study) is a research method in which areas of the brain are removed or disabled in order to determine their specific functions. Ablation is when tissue is removed using surgery, lasers, or vaporization.
Lesioning studies are a part of the study of cognitive neuroscience, primarily in the area of declarative memory. This technique of study involves study lesions of the brain, whether the result of injury, illness, or induced by the researcher.
The two brain structures that are most often used in this type of study is the amygdala and the hippocampus. These studies, generally performed on lab rats, measure the ability to learn new skills and then to transfer that learning to other situations. It has been proved through these studies that the hippocampus integral to learning and memory.
Lesioning also is used as a treatment for certain disorders. This lesioning procedure targets cells that control movement and are used to treat movement disorders, such as essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia
Ablative brain surgery (also known as brain lesioning) is the surgical ablation by various methods of brain tissue to treat neurological or psychological disorders. The word "Ablation" stems from the Latin word Ablatus meaning "carried away". In most cases, however, ablative brain surgery doesn't involve removing brain tissue, but rather destroying tissue and leaving it in place. The lesions it causes are irreversible.
Computed Tomography (CT) of the brain is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses special X-rays measurements to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the brain. Brain CT scans can provide more detailed information about brain tissue and brain structures than standard X-rays of the head, thus providing more data related to injuries and/or diseases of the brain.
During a brain CT, the X-ray beam moves in a circle around the body, allowing many different views of the brain. The X-ray information is sent to a computer that interprets the X-ray data and displays it in a two-dimensional (2D) form on a monitor.
Brain CT scans may be done with or without "contrast." Contrast refers to a substance taken by mouth or injected into an intravenous (IV) line that causes the particular organ or tissue under study to be seen more clearly. Contrast examinations may require you to fast for a certain period of time before the procedure. Your physician will notify you of this prior to the procedure.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body. Unlike X-rays or computed tomography (CT scans), MRI does not use ionizing radiation. Some MRI machines look like narrow tunnels, while others are more spacious or wider. MRI scans can last from 30 minutes to two hours.
The MRI machine is a large, cylindrical (tube-shaped) machine that creates a strong magnetic field around the patient. The magnetic field, along with radio waves, alters the hydrogen atoms' natural alignment in the body. Pulses of radio waves sent from a scanner knock the nuclei in your atoms out of their normal position. As the nuclei realign back into proper position, the nuclei send out radio signals. These signals are received by a computer that analyzes and converts them into a two-dimensional (2D) image of the body structure or organ being examined.
Magnetic resonance (MRI) may be used instead of CT - Computed Tomography in situations where organs or soft tissue are being studied, because MRI is better at telling the difference between normal and abnormal soft tissue.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) operates on the same principles, but it shows changes in brain activity over time by tracking blood flow and oxygen levels. The fMRI provides more detailed images of the brain’s structure, as well as better accuracy in time, than is possible in PET scans. With their high level of detail, MRI and fMRI are often used to compare the brains of healthy individuals to the brains of individuals diagnosed with psychological disorders. This comparison helps determine what structural and functional differences exist between these populations.
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a type of nuclear medicine procedure that measures metabolic activity of the cells of body tissues. PET is actually a combination of nuclear medicine and biochemical analysis. Used mostly in patients with brain or heart conditions and cancer, PET helps to visualize the biochemical changes taking place in the body, such as the metabolism (the process by which cells change food into energy after food is digested and absorbed into the blood) of the heart muscle.
PET differs from other nuclear medicine examinations in that PET detects metabolism within body tissues, whereas other types of nuclear medicine examinations detect the amount of a radioactive substance collected in body tissue in a certain location to examine the tissue's function.
Since PET is a type of nuclear medicine procedure, this means that a tiny amount of a radioactive substance, called a radiopharmaceutical (radionuclide or radioactive tracer), is used during the procedure to assist in the examination of the tissue under study. Specifically, PET studies evaluate the metabolism of a particular organ or tissue, so that information about the physiology (functionality) and anatomy (structure) of the organ or tissue is evaluated, as well as its biochemical properties. Thus, PET may detect biochemical changes in an organ or tissue that can identify the onset of a disease process before anatomical changes related to the disease can be seen with other imaging processes such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
In some situations, it is helpful to gain an understanding of the overall activity of a person’s brain, without needing information on the actual location of the activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) serves this purpose by providing a measure of a brain’s electrical activity. An array of electrodes is placed around a person’s head (Figure 4). The signals received by the electrodes result in a printout of the electrical activity of his or her brain, or brainwaves, showing both the frequency (number of waves per second) and amplitude (height) of the recorded brainwaves, with an accuracy within milliseconds. Such information is especially helpful to researchers studying sleep patterns among individuals with sleep disorders.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides a noninvasive tool to study epilepsy and brain function. When it is combined with structural imaging, it is known as magnetic source imaging (MSI).
S08E15 Brain Drain
2.M Discuss the role of neuroplasticity in traumatic brain injury.
2.N Identify the contributions of key researchers to the study of neuroplasticity.
2.O Describe various states of consciousness and their impact on behavior.
2.P Identify the major psychoactive drug categories and classify specific drugs, including their psychological and physiological effects.
2Q Discuss drug dependence, addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal.
2.R Identify the contributions of major figures in consciousness research.
At the age of 11, Brooke Smith had the left side of his brain removed. The left hemisphere of the brain is generally considered the locus of detailed, procedural tasks, such as language and reading. Brooke’s story brings up many questions, among them, how did he regain his speech so effectively, and why is he now able to read? The answers have to do with the plasticity of the brain and to something less tangible: the brain’s response to a positive, dedicated support system that never gave up on Brooke.
Provides learning about the components of the nervous system and the methods used for studying the brain through the story of a hemispherectomy patient.
"What would I be like if I had the right side of my brain removed? (right hemispherectomy)
The Sci Show - Your Brain is Plastic
NR · 2010 · 18min
2.S Discuss aspects of sleep and dreaming.
There are four sleep stages; one for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and three that form non-REM (NREM) sleep. These stages are determined based on an analysis of brain activity during sleep, which shows distinct patterns that characterize each stage.
The breakdown of a person’s sleep into various cycles and stages is commonly referred to as sleep architecture. If someone has a sleep study, this sleep architecture can be represented visually in a hypnogram.
The classification of sleep stages was updated in 2007 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Before that, most experts referred to five sleep stages, but today, the AASM definitions of the four stages represent the consensus understanding of the sleep cycle.
The collective term sleep disorder refers to conditions that affect sleep quality, timing, or duration and impact a person’s ability to properly function while they are awake. These disorders can contribute to other medical problems, and some may also be symptoms for underlying mental health issues.In 1979, the American Sleep Disorders Association published the first classification system dedicated to sleep disorders.
Our knowledge and understanding of sleep health has evolved over the past four decades. More than 100 specific sleep disorders have been identified and today’s classifications use complex methodologies to categorize these disorders based on causes, symptoms, physiological and psychological effects, and other criteria.
The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) intended to measure daytime sleepiness that is measured by use of a very short questionnaire. This can be helpful in diagnosing sleep disorders. It was introduced in 1991 by Dr Murray Johns of Epworth Hospital in Melbourne, Australia.
This questionnaire was developed to determine the level of daytime sleepiness in individuals. It has become one of the most frequently used methods for determining a person’s average level of daytime sleepiness.
Please rate how likely you are to doze or fall asleep in the following situations by selecting the response that best applies. If you have not done some of these activities recently, select what would most likely happen if you were in that situation.
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses sleep quality over a 1-month time interval. The measure consists of 19 individual items, creating 7 components that produce one global score, and takes 5–10 minutes to complete.
Developed by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, the PSQI is intended to be a standardized sleep questionnaire for clinicians and researchers to use with ease and is used for multiple populations. The questionnaire has been used in many settings, including research and clinical activities, and has been used in the diagnosis of sleep disorders.
Clinical studies have found the PSQI to be reliable and valid in the assessment of sleep problems to some degree, but more so with self-reported sleep problems and depression-related symptoms than actigraphic measures.
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) - Scores of '5' or Greater indicate poor sleep quality.
The Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) is a new measure of self-reported sleep difficulties, which was designed to help facilitate research on the overlap of sleep disturbances and psychopathology.
This instrument was developed in 2 large student samples using principal factor analyses; the psychometric properties of the scales then were examined in 3 additional samples (students, psychiatric patients, sleep disorder patients).
The ISDI consists of 11 specific scales (Nightmares, Initial Insomnia, Fatigue, Fragmented Sleep, Nonrestorative Sleep, Anxiety at Night, Light Sleep, Movement at Night, Sensations at Night, Excessive Sleep, Irregular Schedule) and 1 general scale (Daytime Disturbances).
The structure of the ISDI generalizes across both patient and non-patient samples. In addition, the ISDI scales are internally consistent, show good retest reliability, demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with widely used measures of sleep disturbances, and display criterion validity in relation to psychiatric patient status and specific symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) - Calculate your scores as a percentage
The Glasgow Content of Thought Inventory (GCTI) is an instrument concerned in evaluating individuals´ thoughts when they cannot fall asleep. It consists of 25 items. Total scores may range from 25 to 100. The higher the score the greater the intrusiveness and frequency of dysfunctional thoughts at bedtime.
Glasgow Content of Thought Index (GCTI) - Calculate your 3 sub-scale scores
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