8.A Recognize the use of the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by the American Psychiatric Association as the primary reference for making diagnostic judgments.
8.B Describe contemporary and historical conceptions of what constitutes psychological disorders.
8.C Discuss the intersection between psychology and the legal system.
The question is: by whose standards are you “normal” or “abnormal” ? Depending on the society we live in, a behavior can be considered either normal or abnormal. In Japanese culture, honor is taken seriously, thus any incident that hurts one’s pride is worthy of self-killing or suicide. In the United States, however, the first thought that comes to mind whenever someone kills himself is: clinical depression.
Thus, culture determines whether one’s behavior or suspected “psychological pathology” is abnormal or not. “Milder” and “somewhat accepted” bizarre behaviors, for instance, may be called “eccentric” instead of “abnormal.” An artist who paints with his own saliva, for instance, may be considered “eccentric” instead of “abnormal.”
In general, the four common features of an “abnormality” are: deviance, distress, dysfunction, and danger.
Any deviation from accepted norms in a society (or a culture) is considered abnormal. For instance, in western countries, talking to one’s self is enough to raise a red flag. However, in eastern countries where mysticism is considered an important part of life, talking to one’s self or appearing to have a different personality may be considered “the residence of a spirit in the body of a medium.” In psychological term, interestingly, the person is experiencing dissociative personality disorder. But in certain cultures, he might be considered a successful shaman.
Acting unusually doesn’t automatically make one “abnormal.” For instance, a solo world traveler rides his bike to 100 countries worldwide. We may think it’s “abnormal” but as long as it doesn’t give distress to the individual and others around him, it is simply “eccentric” instead of “abnormal.” When interviewed, the solo bike rider may even feel proud of his achievement as the first person who travels the world on a bicycle.
Another test of “abnormality” is whether a behavior causes a dysfunction in everyday activities. Grieving may take a while to pass, but a clinical depression doesn’t seem to pass and the person is likely to withdraw from everyday activities and to stop communication with family members and friends at some point.
Whenever an individual poses a risk of danger to herself or others, then it’s most likely that she is “abnormal.” However, this variable doesn’t occur in every case of “abnormality,” as many psychological pathologies don’t result in suicide or homicide. Though it’s an exception instead of a rule, any threat to “kill” or “harm” one’s self or others is definitely a vivid red flag. By understanding what constitutes an “abnormal” behavior, we should be able to observe ourselves and others in light of living the Good Life.
Reference: Comer, Ronald J. Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers. Defined by Jennie S. Bev, MS
Mental illnesses are health conditions involving changes in emotion, thinking or behavior (or a combination of these). Mental illnesses are associated with distress and/or problems functioning in social, work or family activities.'
Mental illness is common. In a given year:
Mental illness is treatable. The vast majority of individuals with mental illness continue to function in their daily lives.
PG-13 · 2001 · 2hr 15min
A Beautiful Mind, American biographical film, released in 2001, that told the story of American Nobel Prize winner John Nash, whose innovative work on game theory in mathematics was in many ways overshadowed by decades of mental illness.
NR · 1976 · 3hr 18min
Dissociative Identity Disorder
The movie Sybil (1976) is based on true story of Sybil Dorsett (as a code name of the person), who is an art teacher suffering from dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder). She has lived between 1923–1998 years and she was diagnosed by an American psychiatrist Cornelia B. Wilbur.
In the 1970s, the TV movie “Sybil” introduced much of the nation to multiple personality disorder and led to a controversy that continues to shape mental health issues.
Produced by: Retro Report Read the story here: http://nyti.ms/11qNuyp
TV-PG · 1957 · 1hr 31min
Dissociative Identity Disorder
This is an interview of a case of multiple personality. This case study introduces Eve White, Eve Black, and Jane, three personalities present in the same body. The interviewing psychiatrist is Dr. Thigpen. Multiple personality disorder (MPD), now known as dissociative identity disorder (DID), is defined as a disorder in which two or more distinct personalities exist together within one individual. This is a neurotic disorder.
PG-13 · 1996 · 1hr 45min
PG · 1991 · 1hr 39min
A comedic introduction to psychological disorders
What About Bob? is a 1991 American comedy film directed by Frank Oz and starring Bill Murray and Richard Dreyfuss.
What About Bob? portrays realistic psychological disorders from a comedic perspective, through the main character, Bob Wiley. Despite the gross exaggeration of some of Bob’s dysfunctional traits, the film does an exceptional job conveying the reality of these disorders and the affects associated with them.
PG-13 · 2001 · 2hr 12min
Autism Spectrum Disorder
2002 Academy Award Best Actor - Sean Penn
R · 1988 · 2hr 13min
R · 1999 · 2hr 7min
Borderline Personality Disorder
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by the American Psychiatric Association provides a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders. It is used in the United States and in varying degrees around the world, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, and policy makers.
The current version is the DSM-V (fifth edition). It is organized into a five-part 'axis' system, with the first axis incorporating 'clinical disorders' and the second covering personality disorders and intellectual disabilities. The remaining axes cover related medical, psychosocial and environmental factors, as well as assessments of functioning for children.
8.D Evaluate the strengths and limitations of various approaches to explaining psychological disorders.
8.E Identify the positive and negative consequences of diagnostic labels.
8.F Discuss the major diagnostic categories, including neurodevelopmental disorders, neurocognitive disorders, schizophrenia spectrum, and other psychotic disorders, and their corresponding symptoms.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of disorders that affect the development of the nervous system, leading to abnormal brain function which may affect emotion, learning ability, self-control, and memory.
The effects of neurodevelopmental disorders tend to last for a person's lifetime.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that most often occurs in children, but can also be diagnosed in adulthood. ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders affecting children. Symptoms of ADHD include inattention (not being able to keep focus), hyperactivity (excess movement that is not fitting to the setting) and impulsivity (hasty acts that occur in the moment without thought).
An estimated 8.4 percent of children and 2.5 percent of adults have ADHD. ADHD is often first identified in school-aged children when it leads to disruption in the classroom or problems with schoolwork. It can also affect adults. It is more common among boys than girls.
Many ADHD symptoms, such as high activity levels, difficulty remaining still for long periods of time and limited attention spans, are common to young children in general. The difference in children with ADHD is that their hyperactivity and inattention are noticeably greater than expected for their age and cause distress and/or problems functioning at home, at school or with friends.
Symptoms of ADHD include: It can be a difficult condition to diagnose. Many symptoms of ADHD can be typical childhood behaviors, so it can be hard to know what’s ADHD-related and what’s not.
Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder that affects about one percent of the population.
When schizophrenia is active, symptoms can include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, trouble with thinking and lack of motivation. However, with treatment, most symptoms of schizophrenia will greatly improve and the likelihood of a recurrence can be diminished.
While there is no cure for schizophrenia, research is leading to innovative and safer treatments. Experts also are unraveling the causes of the disease by studying genetics, conducting behavioral research, and using advanced imaging to look at the brain’s structure and function. These approaches hold the promise of new and more effective therapies.
The complexity of schizophrenia may help explain why there are misconceptions about the disease. Schizophrenia does not mean split personality or multiple-personality. Most people with schizophrenia are not any more dangerous or violent than the general population. Most people with schizophrenia live with their family, in group homes or on their own.
8.G Discuss the major diagnostic categories, including anxiety disorders, bipolar and related disorders, depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and their corresponding symptoms.
Bipolar disorders are brain disorders that cause changes in a person’s mood, energy and ability to function. Bipolar disorder is a category that includes three different conditions — bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymic disorder.
People with bipolar disorders have extreme and intense emotional states that occur at distinct times, called mood episodes. These mood episodes are categorized as manic, hypomanic or depressive. People with bipolar disorders generally have periods of normal mood as well. Bipolar disorders can be treated, and people with these illnesses can lead full and productive lives.
Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. Fortunately, it is also treatable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home.
Depression symptoms can vary from mild to severe and can include:
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder in which people have recurring, unwanted thoughts, ideas or sensations (obsessions) that make them feel driven to do something repetitively (compulsions). The repetitive behaviors, such as hand washing, checking on things or cleaning, can significantly interfere with a person’s daily activities and social interactions.
Many people have focused thoughts or repeated behaviors. But these do not disrupt daily life and may add structure or make tasks easier. For people with OCD, thoughts are persistent and unwanted routines and behaviors are rigid and not doing them causes great distress. Many people with OCD know or suspect their obsessions are not true; others may think they could be true (known as poor insight). Even if they know their obsessions are not true, people with OCD have a hard time keeping their focus off the obsessions or stopping the compulsive actions.
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.The phobia typically results in a rapid onset of fear and is present for more than six months.The affected person goes to great lengths to avoid the situation or object, to a degree greater than the actual danger posed.
Common causes: Phobia is not always related to an underlying condition. It may be caused by:
Self-treatment: Self- care steps that may be helpful in some less- serious cases:
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a psychological test that assesses personality traits and psychopathology. It is primarily intended to test people who are suspected of having mental health or other clinical issues.
The MMPI is the most used personality test in clinical settings in the United States; it is also the only personality test the results of which are recognized and used by that country's courts of law. Published in 1940, the MMPI was the first comprehensive test that was data-driven, that largely did away with theory, and it was first calibrated by asking inpatient and outpatient individuals of psychiatric hospitals with well-known conditions to answer the test as they would if honest. The MMPI-2 was published in 1989, with a larger and more diverse sample having been used as calibration, including not only individuals from the general population and individuals asked to pretend to be good or bad or to have a specific disorder but also taking into account the findings of many scientific studies that led to the inclusion of subscales and the supplementary scales.
The result was a test so long and so exhausting that virtually nobody is able to keep their answers coherent if an attempt at dishonesty was made. The fact that it is so successful at detecting malingering, among other types of faking, is why this test is used in U.S. court cases of many kinds and why it is also used for employment hiring and promoting, from emergency services to police to military personnel, and in the private sector too. For most people, the MMPI-2 test takes 60 to 90 minutes to complete.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A), published in 1992 by the University of Minnesota Press, is the first MMPI instrument designed specifically for use with adolescents.
The test booklet was adapted from the original MMPI and the MMPI-2, the latter a revised version of the test for adults. The MMPI-A is a self-report instrument designed to aid in the assessment of a wide range of clinical conditions.
Research the Insanity Defense argument and formulate an opinion that is PRO or CON as to whether the Insanity Defense argument is justifiable. Use the video links and reading as sources.
Click HERE for the reading.
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